Wednesday, March 31, 2010

ayahanda meninggal

terasa sedih apabila insan yg telah ku anggap sbg ayah walaupun ia adalah ayahanda yg ku kenal jauh telah meninggal dunia.
aku terasa nk melawatnya tapi tak boleh oleh ayahku. pertanyaan yg sering berlegar dlm fikiran ku ini iaitu kenapa asal org meninggal jer (terutama kuarga) aku tak dapat ikut melihatnya buat kali terakhir.
aku terasa tak adil kerana aku antara org terakhir yg dapat melawat kuarga org meninggal walauppun tak dapat melihat jenazahnya.
aku nak minta maaf sangat kat ayahanda sekiranya aku terlampau banyak kesalahan kepadanya. ayahanda antara kuarga yg rapat dengan ayahku ini. kehilangannya memberi kesan dan ingatan kpdku ini.
alfatihah sy ucapkan buat kuarga ayahanda. semoga rohnya dicucuri rahmat oleh allah taalaa

HPS (Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome)

In 1993, a previously unknown infectious disease agent was discovered by a task force of scientists in New Mexico.

This disease agent occurs naturally throughout most of North and South America; it is airborne, and in the absence of prompt medical attention, its infections are usually fatal.

This disease is called Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS). It can affect anyone, but given some fundamental knowledge, it can also be very easy to prevent.
# What is Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome?

Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) is an infectious respiratory disease endemic to North and South America. It is caused by a virus generally known as the hantavirus. While the disease is frequently fatal, is can be very easily prevented.

The hantavirus has a reputation for being a "rare" virus, which is a clear misunderstanding. In the United States, the virus is ubiquitous, being found in over half of the lower 48 states. In fact, cases of the disease have occured in at least thirty states.

The disease itself is considered rare, as the virus is not very infectious except under certain circumstances. As such, when someone contracts HPS, the incident is frequently considered to be a random "freak accident".

In this regard, contracting the hantavirus is very similar to being struck by lighting: (a) it doesn't happen very often, (b) it is worth avoiding, and (c) it can be prevented very easily if you understand how it works.

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# What is the hantavirus?

A "hantavirus" belongs to a group of RNA virii related to the family Bunyaviridae and, depending on its nature, may be the etiological agent for one of two acute illnesses: hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS). The HFRS-causing hantavirii are endemic to east Asia, while HPS-causing hantavarii are endemic to the New World. But like all virii, their distributions are only dictated by the range of their natural hosts.

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# What is the host of the hantavirus?

The natural host of the hantavirus appears to be rodents, which are thus considered vectors for both HPS and HFRS. In the United States, the hantavirus is typically carried by the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus). It can also be found in other rodent hosts, such as the cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus), the marsh rice rat (Oryzomys palustris) and the white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus), so other carriers may exist.

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# What different types of hantavirus exist?

There are dozens of types of hantavirii, being carried by rodents all around the world. However, the majority of these strains of hantavirus do not cause disease in humans.

In North America, the most prevalent type of hantavirus that causes HPS is the Sin Nombre virus (SNV), also called the "Four Corners virus". This is the virus carried by the deer mouse. Others found in the United States are the New York-1 virus, Black Creek Canal virus, and the Bayou virus.

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# What is the history of the hantavirus and HPS? (Abbreviated version)

The hantavirus was originally discovered in Asia, during the Korean War. Technically, it was discovered vicariously, through the discovery of the disease it caused: hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS). The actual virus wasn't isolated until 20 years later, in 1976; it was discovered in a striped field mouse that was trapped near the Hantaan River in Korea. This prototype virus was thusly christened the Hantaan Virus. This virus was eventually classified under its own genus, "hantavirus", when others forms were discovered in rodents throughout Asia, even extending into Eastern Europe and Scandinavia.

Americans had no reason to fear the hantavirus until mid-May of 1993, when several healthy young members of the Navajo Nation in New Mexico died within a short period of time. Their cause of death was a mystery, enigmatically described by health officials as "unexplained adult respiratory distress syndrome" (ARDS). This cluster of peculiar, unexplained deaths caught the attention of the world, prompting a research endeavor of remarkable haste. The effort involved numerous health agencies, including the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the Indian Health Service (IHS), the University of New Mexico, the Navajo Nation Public Health Center, the New Mexico State Department of Health, and the Office of the Medical Investigator (OMI).

On June 3, as the death toll of the Four Corners epidemic reached twelve, researchers made their critical discovery: this infectious form of ARDS created antibodies that were also produced by the hantavirus, even though no known forms of hantavirii produced respiratory distress, or were believed to exist in North America. While many researchers were skeptical of this claim, the identification turned out to be correct; this alone enabled health professionals to accurately diagnose cases of the disease before conditions became extreme, and it helped epidemiologists determine the virus' natural hosts with relative ease.

The Four Corners outbreak occurred because of a combination of unusual environmental conditions: El Niño in 1991-1992 led to a warm winter and a rainy spring in 1993. This contributed to the explosive growth of vegetation, providing food and cover for a burgeoning rodent population. The region experienced a tenfold increase in the numbers of deer mice from the year before. This population explosion, in turn, exacerbated the spread the disease.

Later that year, the virus itself was given a name: Muerto Canyon Virus, which was eventually changed to Sin Nombre virus. The disease was thusly called Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome. At the start of 1994, over 55 HPS cases had been documented, 32 of which were fatal.

For a version of this story with more detail, read about the history of HPS at the CDC's web site.

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# Is HPS a "new" disease?

No, definately not. The Sin Nombre virus and other New World strains of hantavirii have probably been living happily in their rodent hosts for thousands of years, long before the first immigrants even settled here. There are even references to HPS in Native American folklore -- where if you let mice live in your dwelling, they'll "take away the breath" of your children.

HPS is a "stealth" disease. Its incident rate is low enough -- and its symptoms are nondescript enough -- that it went unidentified as a specific malady for centuries. It was only identified during the 1993 outbreak because several cases occurred in the same region within a short period of time. Now that the presence of the virus can be determined with antibody tests, health officials have identified HPS patients -- both survivors and victims -- from as far back as 1959.

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# Is HPS a "notifiable" disease?

Yes. By being a "notifiable disease", HPS is one of over 50 diseases that is under national surveillance; whenever a case occurs, it is reported to the CDC's National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS), to facilitate prevention and control of the disease.

This reporting is voluntary, unless it is mandated on the state level. (More than half of the continental United States mandate the reporting of HPS cases to the NNDSS.) The information compiled by the NNDSS is compiled in the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR), a weekly serial publication by the CDC.

Whether or not a disease is considered "notifiable" is determined by the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE) and this list is revised periodically. Currently, other notifiable diseases include: anthrax, cholera, encephalitis, gonorrhea, hepatitis, HIV/AIDS, Lyme Disease, malaria, plague, rabies, rubella, syphillis, tuberculosis, and yellow fever.

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# Where have cases of HPS occurred?

Within the United States, cases of HPS have occured in at least thirty of the southern 48 states.

Outside of the continental United States, cases of HPS have occurred in the following countries: Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Paraguay, and Uraguay.

However, HPS carrier rodents can also be found in Bolivia, Costa Rica and Mexico, but have not yet been linked to any incidents of the disease.

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# How do people contract HPS?

Humans don't usually contract HPS directly from rodents. Rodents shed hantavirus particles in their saliva, urine and droppings. Humans usually contract HPS by inhaling particles that are infected with the hantavirus.

HPS is an airborne infectious disease. The virus becomes airborne when the particles dry out and get stirred into the air (especially from sweeping a floor or shaking a rug). Humans then inhale these particles, which leads to the infection.

Other possible methods of contracting HPS include: (a) being bitten by a rodent that is carrying the hantavirus, (b) eating food or drinking water that has been exposed to a hantavirus carrier, or (c) bringing hantavirus-infected particles or droplets into contact with your nose, eyes, or mouth (e.g. licking your hands).

Ticks, fleas, and other biting insects have not been found to trasmit HPS from rodents to humans. In fact, no other animals (apart from the carrier rodents) are believed to be directly involved in HPS transmission to humans. However, it is possible for domestic dogs and cats to bring infected rodents into contact with humans.

It is generally believed that humans cannot spread HPS to other human beings, but cases from an HPS outbreak in Argentina (in late 1996) suggest that this may be a possibility. At any rate, human-to-human transmission is considered the least-likely method of contracting the disease, especially in the United States.

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# What conditions usually lead to contracting HPS?

Since HPS is not considered a highly infectious disease, people usually contract HPS from long-term exposure. If rodents can be found in your home or workplace, you may be at risk for contracting HPS.

Since transmission usually occurs through inhalation, it is easiest for a human being to contract HPS within a contained environment, where the virus-infected particles are not thoroughly dispersed. Being in a small house, a crawl space, or a barn where rodents can be found poses elevated risks for contracting HPS.

The environments that provide the greatest risk are unoccupied buildings, such as an abandoned house, a cabin, or the toolshed in your back yard. Rodents can thrive in such places, especially in cold weather. The gathering dust will only increase the infectiousness of the disease.

A very common scenario for contracting HPS is cleaning out a dirty shed: if the shed has been a long-standing home to any carrier rodents, then sweeping the floor will aerosolize the virus particles and make their inhalation much more likely.

Travelling to a place where the hantavirus is known to occur is not considered a risk factor. Camping, hiking, and other outdoor activities also pose insubstantial risks, especially if steps are taken to reduce rodent contact.

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# Can HPS be fatal?

Absolutely. Untreated cases of HPS are almost always fatal. However, if you can get yourself treated for HPS before the disease progresses to acute respiratory distress, then your chances of surviving are greatly increased. Thanks to improved methods of diagnosis, care, and a greater HPS awareness within the medical community, the mortality rate of HPS has rapidly decreased over the past few years.

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# What are the symptoms of HPS?

The very first symptoms can occur anywhere between five days and three weeks after infection. They almost always include fever, fatigue, and aching muscles (usually in the back, shoulders, and/or thighs). Other early symptoms may include headaches, dizziness, chills, and abdominal discomfort (such as vomiting, nausea, and/or diarrhea).

These early symptoms are very difficult to distinguish, and as such they are usually overlooked. In fact, these symptoms are frequently described as "flu-like", because they indicate that the body's immune system is kicking in to defend itself against a viral infection, flu or otherwise. Most people experience these symptoms at least once a year, and HPS will almost never be diagnosed at this point.

(Conversely, rashes, sore throats, and earaches are not typical symptoms of HPS. These symptoms are sometimes used diagnostically to determine when a hantavirus infection is unlikely. Also, HFRS will lead to hemmorhages and severe kidney disfunction, which HPS does not.)

HPS starts to distinguish itself in its later symptoms, which usually occur between three to five days later. These pronounced symptoms include coughing and shortness of breath. This is known as the "cardiopulmonary phase" of the disease, where the body reacts as the lungs start to fill up with fluid. From here, the disease progresses very rapidly; the shortness of breath leads to acute repiratory distress, often within 24 hours.

Breathing will become extremely labored and difficult, and in many cases, it will eventually become impossible for the victim to breathe unassisted. The heart rate will also slow down considerably. If the victim is not receiving medical assistance during this phase of the disease, they will likely die.

The primary cause of death will be excessive proteinaceous fluid in the lungs. The fluid, essentially plasma, is leaked from capillaries into the lungs' air sacs. Autopsies of HPS victims have found that their lungs were so severely fluid-filled, that they weighed twice as much as expected. However, death is frequently associated with shock and heart failure instead of "drowning"; the body's response to the trauma is actually more damaging than the trauma itself.

If someone survives the cardiopulmonary phase of the disease, they usually recover very rapidly. Sometimes a recovering HPS patient can have kidney difficulties, such as excessive urination ("polyurea"), but usually convalesce quickly. During the course of the disease, if damage happens to occur to the lungs or lung vasculature, then the patient may experience minor respiratory difficulty after recovery.

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# What should I do if I suspect that I have HPS?

Seek medical attention immediately. Most HPS victims who receive prompt medical attention are likely to survive the infection. (However, the overall mortality rate is still near 50%, so even immediate medical attention will not guarantee recovery.)

Haste is a very important consideration with fighting HPS. The disease can become acute very rapidly; people have died within hours of suspecting that they were even sick.

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# How is HPS treated?

HPS is a viral infection; if a severe viral infection cannot be prevented by a vacciene, then it can only be controlled with "aggressive supportive care", where the patient is provided continued medical assistance and (hopefully) kept alive long enough for their body to develop antibody resistance.

In the case of HPS, the patient will usually receive antibiotics initially, until the diagnosis of HPS is certain. Once HPS is proven, the patient will be transferred to an intensive-care unit, where they are carefully monitored for fluid balance, electrolyte balance, and blood pressure.

During the onset of the cardiopulmonary phase, the patient may need to be hooked up to a ventilator, which will hopefully keep them breathing. In some occasions, antiviral medication (such as Ribavirin and Bradycor) will be administered intravenously, although it hasn't shown much promise when fighting HPS. Interestingly enough, Ribavirin does appear to be an effective weapon against HFRS.

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Saturday, March 20, 2010

menarik tentang kerdau

Medan Infodesa Kg Kuala Kerdau, Temerloh, Pahang Darul Makmur merupakan Pusat ICT komuniti bagi kegunaan penduduk desa dan luar bandar. MID ini merupakan salah satu daripada 13 projek dilaksanakan dalam Rancangan Malaysia Ke-9 (RMK-9) bagi DUN Kerdau di bawah Parlimen Kuala Krau yang membabitkan peruntukan RM1 juta. MID ini diberi peruntukan sebanyak RM300.000 yang dilengkapi kemudahan seperti bilik ICT, surau, pejabat, tandas, 11 komputer, pencetak, pengimbas, kamera dan peralatan-peralatan pejabat.

Medan Infodesa Kg Kuala Kerdau mula beroperasi pada 2 Januari 2008. Sebelum MID ini beroperasi taklimat pengurusan telah diberikan pada 7 November 2007. Ia mempermudahkan lagi urusan pelaksanaan dan untuk menjayakannya.


MID ini terletak di daerah Temerloh, Pahang, Malaysia . Secara khususnya, ia terletak di Mukim Kerdau 20 kilometer dari bandar Temerloh.
Kerdau terkenal dengan dusun manggisnya. Selain manggis, buah-buahan yang terkenal di Kerdau ialah mesta, duku, durian dan beberapa buah-buahan tempatan lain.

Tuesday, March 16, 2010

ku rasakan

hidup ini kadangkala ku rasakan seperti ombak
ia mengharungi denai-denai dan juga lurah-lurah
kadangkala ku merasakan seperti air
yang meredah segala onak dan duri
ikan di dalamnya berasa tenteram
walaupun kadangkala sukar air dicari

apabila ku berada di puncak
dapat kurasakan ia seperti angin yang menjelma
begitu mendamaikan jiwa rohaniku ini
dan memberi ketenteraman kepada ku ini
apabila ku berada di bawah
ku rasakan ia seperti hembusan bayu
yang membelai jiwa ragaku ini

apabila ku dalam kesedihan ia seperti hujan
yang datang merebas jiwa ragaku ini
ia akan membasahi setiap ucapanku ini
apabila ku mencari hala tujuku ia seperti gerimis
ia akan membawaku di mana hala tujuku ini

Wednesday, March 10, 2010

suka tgk dia terkejut

Pada 20.3.2010,bekas teman sebilik sy iaitu ieda telah buat majlis perkahwinan pd ari ahad. sy tak sangka laa dapat datang ke majlisnya coz sangkaan sy ayah sy tak izinkn saya ke majlisnya meleset sama skali.
saya pergi dengan kawan baik ke majlisnya krana ayah dah balik kl (sabtu) dan ahad sy pergi berkonvoi dgn kwn yg lama dok pahang ke majlisnya dlm kol 10 lebih pagi.
saat paling best apabila melihat ieda terkejut dengan kehadiran saya ke majlisnya coz sebelum nie sy macam bermain dengan sms tak mau hadiri ke majlisnya. muka ieda nampak happy sangat dngan kehadiran saya
saya tak sangka pula,majlisnya seangkatan dengan majlis kawen mak cik bongsunya kerana ieda tak cakap pun. sy bawa satu adiah dan menyesal tak bawa dua hadiah ke majlis kawen tue.
sy saat melihat mukanya terkejut memang best laa coz saya sukar nak nampak mukanya terkejut apatah lagi dengan surprise kehadiran saya nie ke majlisnya dengan tak ada langsung kad kawennya coz dia just taip kat fb jemput sy ke majlis kawinnya.

Thursday, March 4, 2010

kejatuhan kerajaan khilafah islamiah terakhir di turki

3 march thn 1924 kejatuhan kerajaan khilafah islamiah terakhir di turki dimana tarikh kejatuhan ini byk yg tidak tahu.
-Pengabaian Bahasa Arab
-Kurangnya ijtihad dan kemunduran daya berfikir
-Kemasukan pemikiran-pemikiran asing
-Perpecahan di kalangan umat Islam
-Ancaman ketenteraan oleh musuh Islam khususnya Barat
-Konspirasi politik dan kebudayaan
-Kebangkitan puak Nasionalis dan Sekular
Secara umumnya Sejarah Islam selepas kewafatan Nabi Muhammad s.a.w. telah berkembang secara serius diseluruh dunia. Kerajaan Bani Ummaiyyah, Kerajaan Bani Abbasiyyah, dan Empayar Turki Uthmaniyyah boleh dikatakan penyambung kekuatan Islam selepas pemerintahan Khulafa al-Rasyidin.
Kesan daripada kejatuhan Kerajaan Turki Uthmaniyah boleh dibahagikan kepada dua kategori iaitu
Negara-negara umat Islam menjadi lemah sehingga mudah dijajah satu persatu dan umat Islam mula diperkotak-katikkan dan ditindas selagi tidak mahu menerima perubahan yang dibawa oleh golongan Freemasom.
Pada akhir abad ke-19, sekitar 1870an, Midhat Pasha pada ketika itu sebagai ’Grand Vazier’ (seperti ketua menteri) telah memperkenalkan perlembagaan sekular yang ditiru dari perlembagaan Belgium. Perlembagaan ini menerangkan adanya parlimen untuk mewujudkan undang-undang baru dan sistem Demokrasi diterapkan manakala sistem Khilafah Islam mesti diketepikan. Walaupun perlembagaan ini mendapat tentangan daripada Khalifah Sultan Abdul Hamed II pada ketika itu, namun akhirnya selepas pemecatan Abdul Hamed pada 1908 melalui konspirasi politik, ia diterapkan berserta undang-undang Perancis. Para ulama juga telah mengeluarkan fatwa memboleh menerima undang-undang Barat kerana berpendapat ia tidak bertentangan dengan Islam. Ini menyebabkan institusi Khilafah bertambah lemah, umat Islam semakin jauh daripada Islam kerana kehidupan mereka diatur oleh sistem Barat bukan hukum-hukum Allah lagi. Walau bagaimanapun, institusi Khilafah masih wujud lagi pada ketika ini.
1915, muncul nama Mustapha Kamal Beik (Mustapa Kamal Attarturk) di Turki. Kamal hanyalah merupakan pegawai tentera yang biasa dan tidak terkenal tetapi mempunyai pemikiran sekular. Semasa peperangan di Ana Forta pimpinannya, ketika itu dia merupakan Kolonel yang memimpin satu division ketenteraan, Turki sedang berperang dengan British iaitu sebuah kuasa tentera yang sangat besar. Dalam senyap, Kamal telah berpakat dengan British, kemudian British telah mengundurkan tenteranya. Dengan pengunduran British ini, bermakna tentera Kamal telah menang dan nama Kamal pun diangkat sebagai wira negara. Dari situ pengaruh Kamal dan gerakan pimpinannya, Gerakan Turki Muda menjadi semakin besar dan penting dalam pentadbiran Turki. Sejak itu, Mustapa Kamal diberi tugas-tugas penting dalam peperangan namun malangnya, bukan peperangan yang berlaku tetapi perjanjian damai dengan musuh Islam dibuatnya. Dan perjanjian-perjanjian tersebut hanya berpihak kepada musuh Islam misalnya Kamal telah mengundurkan tentera di Syria ketika berhadapan dengan British, selepas itu British menguasai Syria.
Selain daripada Kamal Attarturk, pihak yang memainkan peranan secara langsung dalam meruntuhkan sistem Khilafah Islam ialah British. British memang sangat dengki dengan Islam dan mahu menjatuhkan negara Turki-Uthmaniyyah sebagai negara Islam dan meruntuhkan sistem Khilafah (dalam bahasa Inggeris : Caliphate). Sebelum kemunculan Kamal lagi, British telah meniup semangat patriotisme dan nasionalisme Arab dan nasionalisme Turki supaya perpaduan di kalangan umat Islam terpecah. Kemudian, para nasionalis yang mendokong idea ini menuntut kemerdekaan daripada Turki-Uthmaniyyah iaitu memisahkan wilayahnya daripada kesatuan negara Islam. Negara Turki-Uthmaniyyah yang besar itu kemudian dipecahkan oleh Barat menjadi Arab Saudi, Jordan, Mesir, Iraq, Lebanon dan negera-negara kecil lain dan Barat memerintah ke atas negara-negara tersebut melalui mekanisme ’pecah dan perintah ’(divide and rule). Setelah kesatuan umat Islam sudah melemah, target seterusnya ialah Turki dan Institusi Khilafah. Selepas Perang Dunia Pertama, 1921, di mana Turki telah kalah, British telah memfokuskan ketenteraannya di Turki iaitu pusat pemerintahan Dunia Islam demi memusnahkan seluruhnya kerajaan Islam. Pada masa yang sama, British di bawah pimpinanan General Harrington mengawal keadaan politik di Istanbul.
Pada pagi 3 Mac 1924, Perhimpunan Agung Kebangsaan telah mengumumkan pembubaran Khilafah dan pemisahan agama Islam daripada Negara. Kamal Attartuk telah memerintahkan Khalifah terakhir, Khalifah Abdul Majed hendaklah meninggalkan Turki sebelum subuh. Kamal bersama polis dan tentera berhimpun di istana Khalifah dan memaksa Khalifah memasuki kereta dan membawanya ke Switzerland. Dua hari selepas itu, Kamal Attartuk mengumpulkan semua waris Khalifah dan mengusir mereka keluar negara. Kesemua aktiviti keagamaan dimansuhkan, semua sekolah-sekolah agama ditukar kepada sekolah sekular, mahkamah Islam dimansuhkan dan undang-undang sekular dilaksanakan sepenuhnya. Akhirnya impian British untuk meruntuhkan Kerajaan Khilafah Turki Uthmaniyyah tercapai. Perjanjian Lausane yang diketuai oleh British mengiktiraf kemerdekaan Turki. Pada tahun yang sama, British membawa keluar semua tenteranya dari Turki. Lord Curzon, Perdana Menteri British pada masa itu berkata, ”…Turki telah dimusnahkan dan tidak akan bangkit lagi kerana kita telah musnahkan kekuatan spiritualnya: Khilafah dan Islam.” Begitulah secara ringkasnya bagaimana Khilafah Islam Turki-Uthmaniyyah diruntuhkan.